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When the World Bank visited my father

My friend, novelist Brig Chuka Kibuuka loves to say that after Lyantonde—as one travels from southwestern Uganda towards east into Buganda, Busoga, onwards—there are “no serious people.” But “lazy fools.”  

Everyone after Lyantonde is poor both materially and mentally, Kibuuka says.  Please note that Brig Kibuuka is not tribal.  He is a humorous and quite cosmopolitan man. But he is non-analytical, loose, and acutely obsessed with what he sees, visuals: lush banana plantations, curvy well-fed damsels, and cattle herds common in southwestern Uganda. He endlessly contrasts these visuals against the pale and often unkempt plantations in Buganda, and jigger-infested and starving Busoga.

He is full of jokes about the mud-and-wattle, grass-thatched huts in central and Eastern Uganda, against the all-brick mansions across southwestern Uganda. He takes these as markers of seriousness and individual genius of the people of southwestern Uganda. (I know, he never accounts for the tribal advantaging of Museveni’s government but I will not hold that against him today).

Just to note that these are the same comparisons that informed Museveni’s cynicism when he ridiculed Busoga recently. I agree, both men are handicapped by their soft lives. Because Museveni hails from southwestern Uganda (Ankole), and the seat of government is in the central (Buganda), these juxtapositions between Buganda-Busoga poverty and southwestern Uganda wealth have become commonplace.

A great deal of fiction and tribal sentiment filters through these comparisons, again, thanks to Bwana Museveni—and could be recipe for disaster. My concern today is that these comparisons, unfortunately locate some in-born genius or lack of it, in the individuals or cultures of either side.

In truth, however, the difference between the material conditions (housing, food, farmlands, cattle herds) in southwestern Uganda and the scarcities in the central has a different history, which has nothing to do with anyone’s genius. But the aggression of the so-called “international” political economic regimes.

On either side of this contention, all Ugandans are victims. The difference in conditions in Buganda and Busoga are the prime examples of (a) the ruins of structural adjustment, and (b) early cosmopolitanism in the central as the southwest remained agrarian, almost untouched by colonial modernity.

My father’s story

Last week, I wrote about my father, Hassan Byekwaso Tibamanya (or Butamanya as he recently amended his surname).  I return to his story with more details and insight As a young man whose education reached Junior Level II (Namagabi Secondary School), this man joined the working-class in the early 1960s with the rise of industrialisation in Jinja.  

From Kayunga, he went to Jinja where he joined Muluk Textiles, skilling his hands as cone-winder. He would then join Print-Park printers as darkroom assistant, before joining Nyanza Textile Industries Ltd (Nytil).

He would work with Nytil for the next 20 years (1973-1995) rising to the position of senior weaver. Those days, flawless in several Bantu and Nilotic languages, including Ngakarimojong—as Jinja was a melting pot of languages—like many of his peers, this man was dandy and sleek. He was the dream of independent Uganda.

As Eli Wamala, summarised, “they ate what they ate.” Riding their glistening Raleigh bicycles, they were the men about town, playing both league and corporate football.  My father was the traditional Number 7 for Nytil.

As a young man, raised in the cattle corridor, he had left over 50 head of cattle in Bbale and over 20 acres of land.  Like many of his generation, he was determined to embrace a colonial modernity, become working-class or even capitalist later in life.

Please follow the timelines: in the late 1980s, Museveni alongside the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) entered a deal to privatise all these companies that our parents worked for. (Well, WB-IMF forced these policies onto governments across Africa, but Museveni’s embrace, as Prof Mahmood Mamdani pointed out, was absolutely personal. 

Him and his former rebels saw opportunity to both enrich themselves, impoverish nationals—making them more governable—but also endear themselves to returning colonisers).  Hitherto government-owned Nyanza Textiles would be sold off to Picfare, which only turned into a storage facility. 

The Nytil story is the story of Coffee Marketing Board, Lint, Chillington, Uganda Grain Millers, Tiptop Bread, Nuvita, Dunlop Tyres, British American Tobacco (BAT), Gomba Fishing Industry, Uganda Electricity Board, Print-Park, Uganda Argus, Uganda Commercial Bank, all Growers Unions, Uganda Hotels, and several others across the country.  Our parents’ dreams would be permanently altered by Museveni’s gripping love affair with the World Bank and IMF.

FALSE ANKOLE-BUGANDA DIVIDE

It is here that my father’s story reflects the story of many people in Buganda and Busoga, and helps put the Buganda-Busoga vs Ankole debate in context. As early cosmopolitans, also altered by colonialism, Baganda and Basoga quickly moved away from agrarian or pastoral lives to wage labour as the country paced towards industrialisation.

Even farmers were cosmopolitanised through the growers and cooperative unions. While they still had their plantations, these were tended by labourers coming from Ankole and Rwanda.
The present conditions in Buganda and Busoga are because the modes of sustenance would be suddenly collapsed by WB and IMF – in servile association with a man with a cattle-herding worldview.

With industries and cooperative unions collapsed, the people in central Uganda struggled to return to their agrarian lifestyles. They had lost many years. Neither petty trade worked out for them as native credit banks were also collapsed—and Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile executed this role till his death.

While, on the other hand, the people in Ankole returned or continued with their agrarian lifestyles (with farming skills perfected from having worked in Buganda). They are now considered more sophisticated.

But they, too, are victims of the same terrible economy—with a banking regime, for example, which only cripples their efforts to process and sell their agricultural products at good prices, either aboard or an equally impoverished capital city. It is 30 years ago since all this stuff happened—Washington Consensus and Museveni are still in place—and Buganda and Busoga are still struggling. Ankole is in this trap as well.

yusufkajura@gmail.com

The author is a political theorist based at Makerere University.

Comments

+4 #1 Kent Mawa 2022-11-23 17:45
The Nytil story is also about:
Uganda Development Corperation-.UDC
Produce Marketing Board- PMB
Cooperative Bank
Uganda Airlines
Uganda Railways
Transocean
National Housing Coroaration

Plus many national parastatals that were shared up by a few individuals.

But the "most precious industry" that Museveni has destroyed is the one of having a conscience.
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+3 #2 Kalibbala 2022-11-24 01:53
"Don't You Know, Talking About The Revolution Songs! In Whispers" by Tracy Chapman ! Here Comes in The Devils Advocate with Siasa á la Twine Amasasi Gebipinga! Meaning We Will Kill All Those Who do not Toy our Line!!..Yusuf I was there Before you and had a Chance to Travel in UTC Buses from Channel street To Kamwokya for 50 cents a Ride!!

It was One Mugoya as MD and Referee at Times in Our Once Nakivubo Stadium that has spent 12 years being Built While Qatar is Hosting The World Cup!..Alan Paton Wrote "CRY
MY Beloved Country!!"..After Hoodwinking Folks They have Returned to their Old Methods of Attacking themselves to Blame The Opposition!
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+3 #3 sula 2022-11-24 09:29
1- Kent Mawa spot on 100%.

2- Yusuf ,to sum it up, the most important crime museveni has committed against this country is the Economic devastation of the country. People can possibly tolerate a brutal dictator ,if they can survive , But day by day it has become impossible to survive in Uganda.

How can one be proud to lead a country of paupers save his family and friends.
It is a fact even ministers cannot survive with their heavy salaries if you take away the extra stealing they do.
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+3 #4 sula 2022-11-24 09:42
3- Yes all countries that embraced the (WB/IMF- Structural Adjustment Programmes, were economically devastated , even WB/IMF accepted , but the difference was that the countries like Ghana ,Nigeria ,Kenya etc were lucky enough to have political leadership change.

4-In Ghana, President Kuffor who replaced Rawlings, unashamedly declared that the Ghananian economy was in a horrible state and Ghananians had to forget their political differences and combine hands to find a way to save their country ! the rest is history.

5- Unfortunately without change of leadership ,Uganda remained in the same trajectory to date.

6- That's why the biggest challenge to post museveni is Economic reconstruction - and for sure it cannot be done by anybody from the NRA/museveni stable .
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+7 #5 Lysol 2022-11-25 00:25
Yusuf, you seems to forget that it is by design to keep Ugandans poor. It's easy to control a poor man than a rich one.
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+1 #6 Murefu 2022-11-26 11:22
The IMF and World Bank are no different from Great Britain's East African Colonial Company, mere tools of western hegemony. Africa will not develop in any sensible way until it can find alternative sources of capital.
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+1 #7 Remase 2022-11-26 14:35
Doc, the fact of the matter is, our country is run by an organized hardcore criminal [Mafia], M7. As an organized hardcore criminal, M7 exerted a hidden sinister influence when he grabbed the gun and went to the bush to capture power and make our country his personal cash cow.

Uganda shall stay impoverished as long as hardcore organized criminal is still the head of state! M7 has a complex and ruthless behavioral code and his modus operandi is to design the system that collects taxes to enrich himself, his family/relatives and tribesmen but makes certain that it impoverish the society. That's why militants are in parliament, URA, police and allover and are ordered to shoot to kill whoever is believed to threaten their hold on power.
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+2 #8 Lakwena 2022-11-28 08:22
Quoting Kent Mawa:
The Nytil story is also about:
Uganda Development Corperation-.UDC
Produce Marketing Board- PMB
Cooperative Bank
Uganda Airlines
Uganda Railways
Transocean
National Housing Coroaration

Plus many national parastatals that were shared up by a few individuals.

But the "most precious industry" that Museveni has destroyed is the one of having a conscience.


In other words Mawa, a human being without a conscience is a beast (animal). Hence the way the country's collective national resources are plundered for personal gain, and the citizens) are segregated, marginalized and savaged (brutalized).
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