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Some common fallacies in everyday argumentation (Part 1)

As human beings, one thing we cannot avoid is argumentation. It is one of the ways through which we engage in conversation and assess opinions in our unending desire to ascertain the truth.

While we may desire to establish the truth, sometimes the intent of an arguer is to bury the same. Some are quite smart at this, to the extent that if one is not keen enough and well equipped with knowledge of logic, they might not be able to discern that seemingly sound arguments are actually flawed.

One of the Ugandans that make so much reference to logic is Mr Tamale Mirundi. Sometimes he does so in dismantling illogical arguments. In other cases, he uses it as a cover for committing his own fallacies with authority.

On closer scrutiny, while he is very articulate in deployment of facts and claims to make well-spiced arguments, he is more of a sophist than a logician.

Sophists mostly aim at winning arguments, not arriving at truths through argumentation. Lawyers come to mind too. Sophists deploy whatever means possible to win, their favorite one being rhetoric.

In the process, they may commit fallacies that can easily pass without detection because of the way they are attractively packaged. It is partly for this reason that I have suggested here before that we should consider integrating critical thinking into our syllabi across levels and disciplines.

Gullibility is one of the serious impediments to development that we take for granted. The more gullible a people are, the higher the chances that they will rely on untruths in making life decisions in education, religiosity, business, politics, social life, marriage, and so on.

Deeper analysis of many of the ills that occupy us will show that many are ultimately linked to gullibility. The masses exploited by crooks hidden behind religion, domestic violence over comprehension-based differences, political manipulation of electorates, limitations in imagination, name it.

People that cannot critically analyse things on their own easily resort to submissiveness, conformism, superstition, and sheepish regurgitation of what is presented to them as truth. Of course the exploiters may want it this way, because critical people are difficult to exploit. This could be one of the reasons behind the political assault on the humanities.   

In very simple terms, a fallacy is a defect in argumentation, leading to invalidity or unsoundness of an argument. Elisa Gabbert, an American poet and essayist, referred to fallacies as “those nefariously common pitfalls of the human mind, patterns of thought that we all slip into that are nevertheless dead wrong”.

Several fallacies have been identified and named for easy reference. Interested readers could follow this up for their own reading. They can easily be accessed from open online sources.  After learning about these fallacies, carefully read our newspapers, listen to our talk shows, our politicians, policymakers  and everyday conversation, and you will realise the mess.

I will not talk about online comment streams where, research indicates, people tend to be approximately 200 per cent dumber than in real life. One of the common fallacies in our everyday talk is ‘appeal to tradition’, also called argumentum ad antiquitam.

The insinuation here is that things should be done in a certain way because that is how they have always been done. The fact that something has always been done in some way in itself is not an argument for its appropriateness, except if one were to link it to effectiveness.

This fallacy is very common in defence of obsolete cultural practices for no purpose beyond the fact that ‘it is our culture’. It is a convenient way of running away from criticism – ‘we have practiced this since time immemorial’.

One other common one is the fallacy of ‘appeal to authority’. It is falsely assumed here that certain people who are considered to be authorities or experts cannot be questioned. This has come out frequently in Covid-19 response debates.

While on one hand we should rely on ‘scientists’ with more faith on matters in their areas of expertise than we rely on those who are not, it does not ipso facto imply that ‘non-scientists’ cannot question their assertions. Something does not become true simply because it was said by an ‘expert’.

Have you sometimes responded to an argument by attacking the person of the one who makes it? The fallacy is called ‘ad hominem’. For example, Bobi Wine raises an otherwise valid issue and someone responds: ‘Who is that weed smoker to talk about governance issues?” Even if it was true that he smokes weed, that is logically unconnected to the merits of his argument. It only serves rhetorical value.

Assess the argument on its own merits, not by using the character or appearance of a person as though it too was a premise in the argument. But this is not to say that character can never be relevant in evaluating one’s argument. Some contexts could necessitate so.

The fallacy of two wrongs is another. It is also known as ‘tu quoque’. This is where one is faulted for doing something and they respond by saying: ‘But you also do it.” “You should stop telling lies” Answer: “But you also tell lies.”

Two wrongs do not make a right. The fact that another person/group does something does not in itself justify my/our doing it. It can be raised as a matter of inconsistency or unfairness in faulting, but not as an argument for rightness or wrongness.  

The fallacy of generalisation is perhaps the most frequent. This is where we may rely on a few observations to conclude in general terms about something more complex.

We hold so many general homogenised opinions about groups that are internally diverse. The false impression given is that the whole group is like that. As the research principle goes, only conclude to the extent that is allowed by your evidence.

To be continued next week …

jsssentongo@gmail.com

The author is a teacher of philosophy.
 

Comments

-2 #61 Lysol 2020-09-13 18:49
CriticalThinker

I understand Mato Oput is meant for someone who has confessed to committing a murder. Have I murdered someone here and asked for forgiveness?

Don't take the meaning of Mato Oput out of context and use it to make your point in a useless comment. That is an insult and a mockery to the people of Acholi. I know your kinds do such things.

Next time, before you post a derogatory comment about other people's cultures think critically.

As for the Observer, I bring it more traffic because of my comments. Good or bad..That is good business in the social media. It's all about the number of traffic and not the contents. In twitter, they call it re-tweets. All of you include "Lysol" in all of your comments.I'm the real game changer here, because I rule.
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-3 #62 Lysol 2020-09-14 00:18
Wooden K
Why don't you admit that you have a rudimentary skill of how to use a computer, instead of being a clown. A 3rd grader can spell and use the computer, much better than you.

The gadget is the computer you're struggling with, how to use. Go take a class. It's never too late to learn even for a dyslexic individual like you.
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+2 #63 Opolot 2020-09-14 02:03
Lysol, you are a childish attention seeker. Besides coming here to make a fool of yourself and cool yourself from your miserable idleness, you have never commented anything sensible.

At least your fellow idler Jonat tries to reason sometimes. But for you you are in full time idiotic mode.

You only come here to get attention by defecating (your head content) in the forum. That’s the best your metallic head can do. Even your mother knows you are a wasted sociopath
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0 #64 Lakwena 2020-09-14 13:13
[quote name="Lysol"]Lakwena
For once you're have not begun your comment with the phrase "In order words". That is an improvement. Don't forget to take your medications, daily.

Spire (aka Dr to you) is a managerial elite who earn is livings on the weak minds of the society like you. Like a tyrant he uses the mind control tactics to appeal to and control his followers. You should also know that not every intellectual is interested in politics. ... /quote]

But Lysol, I can forgive for being someone who does not first stop to think before he responds.

E.g., how many new English words, vocabularies, and/or phrases do you use everytime you respond herein?

I remember telling you that the most important thing in life and/or existence is repetition! E.g, you eat and shit until you drop dead, you breath in and out until you kick the bucket, etc.
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-3 #65 Lysol 2020-09-14 18:54
To all my haters in here. This discussion is now closed.

I will wait for part 2 of Spire's innuendo and nonsense to post more comments. Adios.
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+1 #66 Opolot 2020-09-15 07:52
Quoting Lysol:
To all my haters in here. This discussion is now closed.

I will wait for part 2 of Spire's innuendo and nonsense to post more comments. Adios.


The chimp has gone back to the forest. Use the break to read, if your sick head can still grasp dear idler. You don’t know how social media works, smelly mouth
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